Government of Tamil Nadu
Department of Economics and Statistics
Season and Crop Report 2005-06
2. LAND USE PATTERN
2.1 The total Geographical area of the State is 1.30 crore ha. It has been classified according to different types of land use during 05-06 and presented in the table below :
( in ha)
2.2 While cultivated land (cultivated atleast once in its entire span) consisting of net area sown, current fallow and other fallow lands is 7520687 ha (which is 57.7% of the total geographical area), land not cultivated but available for cultivation (culturable waste) is 368661 ha forming 2.8% of the total geographical area during 05-06.
2.3 DISTRIBUTION OF LAND IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS
Forest represent all actually forested area on the lands classed or administered as forest under any legal enactment dealing with forest, whether state owned or private. The forest area of the state during 05-06 is 2110703 ha accounting for 16.2% of the total geographical area of the state. Erode district with an extent of 228749 ha under forest is the highest among districts in their contribution to the forest area of the state. This works out to 10.8% of the state’s total forest area. This is followed by Krishnagiri district with 202409 ha (9.6%) and Dharmapuri with 164177 ha (7.8%).
The unique feature of The Nilgiris district is that about 56% of the total area of the district is under forests followed by Krishnagiri with 39.4%, Dharmapuri with 36.5%, Kanyakumari with 32.4% and Theni with 32.0%. Erode, Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Vellore, Coimbatore, Thiruvannamalai, The Nilgiris, Dindigul, Salem, Thirunelveli and Theni Districts together accounted for 80.1% of the total forest area of the state.
2.3.2 Barren and Unculturable Land
Land which cannot be brought under cultivation unless at a high cost whether such land is in isolated blocks or within cultivated holdings, such as mountains, deserts, hills etc. are classified as barren and unculturable land. An extent of 503255 ha of land comes under this category which represents 3.9% of the total geographical area of the state. Villupuram district alone accounted for 56,651 ha which is 11.3% of the state’s barren and unculturable land and about 7.8% of its geographical area under this category. The area under this category is very meagre in Thiruvarur district with just 113 ha.
2.3.3 Land put to Non Agricultural Uses
The land put to use for purposes other than agriculture such as buildings, pathways, roads, social forests, bus stands, railway tracks, canals, rivers, local reservoirs, swamps, marshy and water logged areas, lands under still water etc. are brought under this category. Area under this classification is 2138679 ha accounting for 16.4% of the state’s geographical area. The extent under this category has increased by 14115 ha i.e 0.7% as compared to 04-05. In Chennai district about 98.3% (16798 ha) of its geographical area is put to non-agricultural uses because it is metropolis followed by Kancheepuram district with an extent of 146085 ha (33.0%), Thiruvallur with 102580 ha (30.0%), Sivagangai with 117569 (28.1%) and Pudukottai with 129297 ha (27.7%).
2.3.4 Culturable Waste
All lands available for cultivation whether not taken up for cultivation or taken up for cultivation once, but not cultivated during the current year and continuously for the last five years or more in succession for one reason or the other are classified as culturable waste. Such lands may be either fallow or covered with shrubs and jungles which are not put to any use. The total area under culturable waste is 368661 ha or 2.8% of the total geographical area of the state.
Karur, Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli districts together accounted for 47.0% of the area under this category. The area under this category is nil in Kanyakumari and Chennai districts and very meagre in Erode district with just 556 ha.
2.3.5 Permanent Pastures and other Grazing Lands
All grazing lands, whether they are permanent pastures or meadows are considered as Permanent pastures and other grazing lands. Village common and grazing lands within forested area are included under this category.
An extent of 110309 ha or 0.8% of the geographical area of the state falls under this category. The extent under this category was the highest in Kancheepuram district with 18328 ha (16.6%) followed by Karur district with 10801 ha (9.8%)
2.3.6 Misc.Tree Crops and Groves not included in the Net Area Sown
All cultivable lands, which is not included under net area sown, but is put to some agricultural use such as lands under casuarina, eucalyptus, teak, bamboo bushes, babul, thatching grass and other groves for fuel etc. which are not included under orchards and which bear yield only once in its whole life span are classified under this category. The extent under this category was 274351 ha i.e. 2.1% of the geographical area of the state. Ramanathapuram district with 41210 ha ranked first contributing 15.0% to the total area of the state under this category followed by Thoothukudi district with 39256 ha (14.3%) and Pudukottai district with 28112 ha (10.2%).
2.3.7 Current Fallow Lands
Lands that are kept fallow out of the net area sown during the previous year are classified as current fallow for the reporting year. The area under current fallow during 05-06 was 758840 ha as against 691926 ha during the previous year with an increase of 66914 ha i.e. 9.7%. The extent under this category is the highest in Erode district (90697 ha) followed by Villupuram (86725 ha), Coimbatore (84525 ha) Thiruvannamalai (68662 ha) and Vellore (55061 ha) districts. These districts together accounted for 50.8% of the total area of the state under this category.
2.3.8. Other Fallow Land
Land which were taken up for cultivation but have been temporarily put off cultivation for a period of not less than one year buy not more than five years due to poverty of the cultivators, inadequeate supply of water, malarial climate, silting of canals and rivers, unremunerative nature of farming etc. are treated as other fallow land. An extent of 1518008 ha, which is 11.7% of the total geographical area, was recorded under this category during 05-06 as against 1704139 ha during the previous year. There was a decrease of 186131 ha (10.9%) under this category as compared to the previous year. The land under this category was the highest in Tirunelveli district with 165481 ha and ranked first contributing 10.9% to the total area of the state under this category followed by Virudhunagar district with 160066 ha, Sivagangai district with 118460 ha and Erode district with 105878 ha during 05-06.
2.3.9 Net Area Sown
Net area sown represents the area sown under first crop during the fasli year. Out of 13026645 ha of the total geographical area, 5243839 ha of land constituting 40.3% was cultivated once (i.e Net area sown) with various crops during the year 05-06. When compared to the previous year, the area under this category has increased by 146828 ha (2.8%). Of the total net area sown in the State, the share of Villupuram district was the highest with 330712 ha (6.3%) followed by Coimbatore district with 314957 ha (6.0%), Erode district with 300982 ha (5.7%.) and Dindigul district with 253505 ha (4.8%). When comparing the net area sown with that of the geographical area of the district, Thiruvarur district ranked first contributing 73.1% of its geographical area towards this category followed by Cuddalore district with 59.8%, Perambalur district with 57.2%, Thanjavur district with 56.5%, Nagapattinam district with 54.7% and Namakkal district with 52.5%.
The net area sown in each district, its percentage contribution to its geographical area and the percentage share of each district to the total net area sown of the state are shown in the following table.
DISTRICT CONTRIBUTION TO NET AREA SOWN
( in ha)
2.4 Gross Area Sown
The Gross area sown represents the total area cultivated under all food and non-food crops including the area sown more than once during the fasli year. The gross area sown during 05-06 is 6032718 ha as against 5889069 ha during 04-05, registering an increase of 143649 ha (2.4%).
2.5 Area sown more than once
The area sown more than once represents the difference between the gross area sown under all crops and the net area sown during the fasli year.
The area sown more than once during 05-06 was 788879 ha as against 792058 ha in 04-05, the decrease being 0.4 %.
The area sown more than once is 13.1% of the gross area sown in the state during 05-06.
2.6 Cropping Intensity
Cropping intensity refers to the ratio between the Gross area sown and the Net area sown.
The cropping intensity for the State during 05-06 is 1.150. It is highest in Nagapattinam district with 1.624 followed by Thiruvarur district with 1.551.
The following table shows the districtwise Cropping intensity during 05-06 in Tamilnadu.