Government of Tamil Nadu

Department of Economics and Statistics

Season and Crop Report 2005-06

6. AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY

Factors such as fertility of land, monsoon behaviour, rainfall, irrigation,, application of fertilizers, climatic conditions, marketing facilities, prices, availability of agricultural labourers etc. determine the area and productivity of any crop. The cropwise analysis of production between the current year and previous year is presented in the table below.

The production of foodgrains during the year under report is 6116145 tonnes as against 6146044 tonnes in 04-05 recording a decrease of 29899 tonnes or 0.5%. Rice is major constituent accounting for 85.2% of the total foodgrains production in the state.

Cropwise production of foodgrains is given in the following table.

CROPWISE PRODUCTION OF FOODGRAINS

(in tonnes)

Crop 05-06 04-05
Production % Production %

A CEREALS

1. Rice 5209433 85.18 5061622 82.46
2. Jowar (Cholam) 231449 3.78 252063 4.10
3. Bajra (Cumbu) 94799 1.55 124300 2.02
4. Ragi 131914 2.16 154085 2.51
5. Maize 241217 3.94 294717 4.80
6. Korra 665 0.01 793 0.01
7. Varagu 6676 0.11 10455 0.17
8. Samai 19604 0.32 27866 0.45
9. Other cereals 3127 0.05 3712 0.06
Sub Total (A) 5938884 97.10 5929613 96.48

B . PULSES

10. Bengalgram 4007 0.07 3942 0.06
11. Redgram 20400 0.33 28979 0.47
12. Greengram 45881 0.75 61760 1.00
13. Blackgram 70758 1.16 82998 1.35
14. Horsegram 22023 0.36 20110 0.33
15. Other pulses 13934 0.23 18642 0.30
Sub total (B) 177003 2.90 216431 3.52

TOTAL FOODGRAINS (A+B)

6115887 100.00 6146044 100.00

The production of Cereals recorded an increase of 0.2% during 05-06 whereas the production of Pulses declined by 18.2% when compared to the previous year.

COMPONENTS OF FOODGRAINS 05-06

The Area and production of Foodgrains (Cereals + Pulses) over the last five years is shown in the following graph.

6.1 Paddy

6.1.1 Paddy is the principal crop extensively cultivated in all the districts of the state having a unique three-season pattern viz Kar/Kuruvai /Sornavari (April to July), Samba/ Thaladi/Pishanam (August to November) and Navarai/ Kodai (December to March). Paddy accounted for 34.0% of the total cropped area in the state during 05-06. Villupuram district is at the top with an area of 168435 ha followed by Nagapattinam district with 158100 ha, Thiruvarur district 156098 ha and Thanjavur district 154901 ha. The Districtwise area under paddy and its percentage to total cropped area in the state together with the percentage distribution of paddy area of the state among the districts are given in the table below.

( in ha)

DISTRICT Area % to State Gross Cropped area % of Paddy area to Gross Cropped area
1. Chennai 0 0.0 0 0
2. Kancheepuram 114720 5.6 170458 67.3
3. Thiruvallur 96994 4.7 163010 59.5
4. Cuddalore 114291 5.6 272159 42.0
5. Villupuram 168435 8.2 389392 43.3
6. Vellore 58163 2.8 237833 24.5
7. Thiruvannamalai 142744 7.0 304928 46.8
8. Salem 37328 1.8 250573 14.9
9. Namakkal 18833 0.9 205689 9.2
10. Dharmapuri 29023 1.4 196648 14.8
11. Krishnagiri 21980 1.1 204722 10.7
12. Coimbatore 7406 0.4 333332 2.2
13. Erode 43539 2.1 324701 13.4
14. Tiruchirapalli 79576 3.9 204233 39.0
15. Karur 18398 0.9 114554 16.1
16. Perambalur 45952 2.2 227975 20.2
17. Pudukottai 95986 4.7 162074 59.2
18. Thanjavur 154901 7.5 241292 64.2
19. Thiruvarur 156098 7.6 237715 65.7
20. Nagapattinam 158100 7.7 241291 65.5
21. Madurai 70996 3.4 160810 44.1
22. Theni 15694 0.8 120071 13.1
23. Dindigul 23735 1.2 261758 9.1
24. Ramanathapuram 127395 6.2 185563 68.7
25. Virudhunagar 30776 1.5 148843 20.7
26. Sivagangai 89924 4.4 120451 74.7
27. Tirunelveli 86397 4.2 200703 43.0
28. Thoothukudi 19932 1.0 179054 11.1
29. The Nilgiris 1430 0.1 81079 1.8
30. Kanyakumari 21709 1.1 91807 23.6
STATE 2050455 100.0 6032718 34.0

6.1.2 The normal area under Paddy is about 1800000 ha. However, owing to good rainfall, the area under paddy had increased to 1872822 ha during 04-05. Subsequent monsoon condiction and abundance of water thereof during 05-06, prevailed on the extent of area under paddy which has picked up to 2050455 ha registering an increase of 9.5% and correspondingly the production of rice has also increased to 5209433 tonnes from 5061622 tonnes in 04-05 showing an increase of 2.9%. The yield rate of Rice, on the contrary, has reduced to 2541 kg/ha in 05-06 from 2703 kg/ha in 04-05.

6.1.3 The seasonwise area, production and yield rate of paddy are furnished below:

SEASON Area in ha In terms of Rice
Production in tonnes Yield rate in Kg/ha.
05-06 04-05 % Var. 05-06 04-05 % Var. 05-06 04-05 % Var.
1.Kuruvai 321865 304597 5.7 1061401 1005504 5.6 3298 3301 -0.1
2.Samba 1531382 1437803 6.5 3560764 3651979 -2.5 2325 2540 -8.5
3.Navarai 197208 130422 51.2 587268 404139 45.3 2978 3099 -3.9
All Seasons 2050455 1872822 9.5 5209433 5061622 2.9 2541 2703 -6.0

6.2 Jowar (Cholam)

Jowar known as Cholam in Tamilnadu was grown in about 316274 ha constituting 5.2% of the total cropped area of the state. Jowar is sown in both under rain-fed as well as irrigated conditions. Coimbatore, Dindigul, Trichirapalli, Namakkal, Karur, Salem, Theni, Dharmapuri, Madurai and Vellore districts have contributed 85.2% of the total area under this crop in the state during 05-06.

Year 05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 316274 376739 -16.0
Production (in Tonnes) 231449 252063 -8.2
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 732 669 9.4

 

6.3 Bajra (Cumbu)

Bajra known as Cumbu in Tamilnadu is generally sown under rain-fed conditions in the state. The area under the crop during 05-06 is 81925 ha constituting 1.3% of the total cropped area in the State. Bajra is generally grown in Thoothukudi, Villupuram,, Virudhunagar, Karur and Madurai districts that together accounted for 64.3% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.

Year 05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 81925 97608 -16.1
Production (in Tonnes) 94799 124300 -23.7
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 1157 1273 -9.1

 

6.4 Ragi

The area under Ragi constitutes about 1.7% of the total cropped area in the state in 05-06. Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Salem, Erode and Vellore districts together accounted for 92.2% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.The Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts alone share 67.9%.

Year 05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 99549 108845 -8.5
Production (in Tonnes) 131914 154085 -14.4
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 1325 1416 -6.4

 

6.5 Other Millets

6.5.1 Maize, Korra, Varagu, Samai, Kudhiraivali and Panivaragu constitue “other millets” which are sparsely grown in the state.

These crops are mainly cultivated in rain-fed conditions and the area under these millets accounted for 243197 ha or 8.7 % of the total area under cereals during 05-06.

6.5.2 Maize is the major contributor accounting for 83.4% (202830 ha) of the total area under other millets. It is mainly grown in Perambalur, Dindigul, Coimbatore, Salem, Erode and Virudhunagar districts and they together share 77.1 % of the total area under this crop in the state.

6.5.3 Korra crop accounted for 0.6 % (1355 ha) of the total area under other millets. Major part of Korra is grown in the districts of Salem, Villupuram, Namakkal and Cuddalore.

6.5.4 Varagu crop is mainly sown under rain-fed conditions in the districts of, Cuddalore, Villupuram and Perambalur. The area under Varagu contributed 2.4% (5871 ha) of the total area under other millets.

6.5.5 Samai crop covers 11.3% (27577 ha) of the total area under other millets. Samai crop is generally sown in less fertile soil as a mixture crop with pulses through out the year regardless of the seasons. Dharmapuri district alone shares 47.8% of the Samai area in the state.

6.5.6. Apart from this, other millets such as Kudiraivali and Panivaragu are also grown in Tamil Nadu, mostly in Ramanathapuram, Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli and Salem districts. The Area and production of small millets are shown in the following table.

Year 05-06 04-05 % Var
Area in ha 243197 24541 1.1
Prod’n in tonnes 271289 337543 -19.6

6.6 Pulses

Of the 3316637 ha under Foodgrains, the area under Pulses was 525237 ha. which is 15.8% of the area under foodgrains. Pulses can grow both in rainfed and irrigated conditions. They comprise of Redgram, Greengram, Blackgram, Horsegram, Bengal gram, Cowpea, Mochai, Naripayaru etc.

Area and production of Pulses are shown in the following table

Year 05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 525237 590250 -11.0
Production (in Tonnes) 177003 216431 -18.2

6.6.1 Blackgram

Blackgram is one of the important pulses grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. It accounts for 41.0% of the total area under pulses during the current year. This crop was extensively grown in Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur, Cuddalore, Toothukudi, Tirunelveli, and Villupuram districts and these districts together accounted for 77.7% of the total area under the crop during 05-06.The Area, production and yield rate of Blackgram is shown in the table below.

Year 05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 215448 226364 -4.8
Production (in Tonnes) 70758 82998 -14.7
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 328 367 -10.6

 

6.6.2 Greengram

Greengram is one of the major pulses widely consumed next to Blackgram. It is grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. The crop was extensively cultivated in Thoothukudi, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, and Virudhunagar districts which together accounted for 60.7% of the total area under this crop in the state during 05-06.The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Greengram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 136699 154959 -11.8
Production (in Tonnes) 45881 61760 -25.7
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 336 399 -15.8

 

Redgram

Redgram is sown mainly under rain-fed condition. Vellore district stands first (12321 ha) in the cultivation of Redgram with 32.6% of the total area under this crop during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Redgram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 37769 43416 -13.0
Production (in Tonnes) 20400 28979 -29.6
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 540 667 -19.0

 

6.6.4 Horsegram

Horsegram Crop is grown both in Kharif and Rabi Seasons. Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts are the main districts in the cultivation of horsegram with 53.3% of the total area under this crop during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Horsegram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 60415 67513 -10.5
Production (in Tonnes) 22023 20110 9.5
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 365 298 22.5

6.6.5 Bengalgram

Bengalgram is mainly sown in Rabi season. Coimbatore district stands first in the cultivation of Bengalgram with 76.2% of the area under the crop in the state during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Bengalgram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var
Area (in ha) 5907 6420 -8.0
Prod,n (in tonnes) 4007 3942 1.6
Yield rate (in kg/ha) 678 614 10.4

6.7 Sugarcane

Sugarcane is the most important commercial crop grown in the State. Out of 335397 ha of area under Sugarcane, 63.4% is planted and 37.6% is Ratoon.

Villupuram, Erode, Cuddalore, Thiruvannamalai, Vellore, Perambalur, Thanjavur, Dharmapuri, Namakkal and Salem districts together accounted for 74.3% of the total Sugarcane area of the state during 05-06. The area, production and yield rate of Sugarcane for the year 05-06 compared to 04-05 are shown in the table below:

Year 05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 335397 222188 51.0
in terms of Cane Prod’n in tonnes 35113269 24457244 43.6
Yield rate in Ton / ha 105 110 -4.5

 

6.8 Chillies

Chillies is another important commercial crop grown in the State. This is mainly grown in Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi districts and sparsely grown in almost all other districts. These two districts together share 63.4% of the total area under this crop during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of chillies during 05-06 compared to 04-05.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 49033 66990 -26.8
Production (in Tonnes) 31830 44631 -28.7
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 649 666 -2.6

 

6.9 Potato

Potato is a major vegetable widely consumed throughout Tamilnadu whereas it is grown only in the hilly areas of Dindigul, The Nilgiris, Krishnagiri and Erode districts. Dindigul and The Nilgiris districts together constitute about 94.8% of potato area in the state during 05-06.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 5005 5034 -0.6
Production (in Tonnes) 74593 79060 -5.7
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 14904 15705 -5.1

 

Banana

Banana is the third trinity of Fruits and is also grown all over the State. Banana is the most widely consumed and is available in all seasons and in different varieties in the State. The Total area under Banana is 94648 ha. in the state during 05-06. Thoothukudi, Trichirapalli, Coimbatore, Erode, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Vellore and Thanjavur districts together accounted for 60.2% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 94648 81498 16.14
Production (in Tonnes) 4647635 3461788 34.26
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 49104 42477 15.6

 

6.11 Mango

Mango is one of the trinity of Fruits in Tamilnadu and is a seasonal one. It is generally grown under rain-fed conditions in the state. The area under the crop during 05-06 is 125104 ha in the State. Mango is generally grown all over the state and concentrated specifically in the districts of Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Vellore, Tiruvallur and Dharmapuri that together accounted for 63.9 % of the total area under this crop during 05-06.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 125104 118444 5.62
Production (in Tonnes) 537780 539404 -0.3
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 4299 4554 -5.6

 

6.12 Groundnut

Groundnut is the major crop under oilseeds accounting for 10.3% of the total cropped area in the state during 05-06. It is raised as both rain-fed as well as irrigated crop. Thiruvannamalai, Vellore, Villupuram, Namakkal, Erode and Salem districts constitute 54.9% of the area under groundnut in the state during 05-06.

The area, production and yield rate of Groundnut during 05-06 compared to 04-05 are furnished below:

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 618835 615877 0.5
Production (in Tonnes) 1097592 1005342 9.2
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 1775 1632 8.8

 

6.13 Coconut

Coconut is a perennial crop raised extensively in Coimbatore, Thanjavur, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Vellore, Erode, Tirunelveli, Theni, Krishnagiri, Salem and Madurai districts. The area under coconut in these districts accounted for 77.8% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 370515 357056 3.8
Production (in lakh nuts) 48671 40970 18.8
Yield rate (in nuts/ha) 13782 11474 20.1

 

6.14 Gingelly

Next to Groundnut and Coconut, Gingelly is the major oilseed crop in the state. Erode, Villupuram, Karur, Thanjavur, Thoothukudi, Virudhunagar, Cuddalore and Perambalur districts accounted for 67.8% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 65118 72725 -10.5
Production (in Tonnes) 30772 33840 -9.1
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 469 465 0.9

 

6.15 Cotton

As a commercial crop different varieties of cotton are grown to the extent of 109742 ha in the state during the year under report. The major cotton growing districts are Salem, Virudhunagar, Madurai and Vellore together accounted for 42.1% of the total area under cotton during 05-06. The Area, Production and yield rate of cotton are furnished in the table below:

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 109742 129364 -15.2
in terms of lint Production (in bales of 170 kg each) 168154 185960 -9.6
Yield rate (in Kg/ ha) 260 244 6.6

 

6.16 Cashewnut

Cashewnut is the most important commercial crop in the State. It was grown in about 106059 ha in the state during 05-06. Cashewnut is sown mostly in sandy soil conditions. Perambalur, Cuddalore and Pudukottai districts have contributed 72.4% of the total area under this crop in the state during 05-06.

Year

05-06 04-05 % var.
Area (in ha) 106059 104659 1.34
Production (in Tonnes) 43858 44497 -1.44
Yield rate (in Kg/ha) 414 425 -2.59

 

6.17 The Production and Productivity of some important crops for 05-06 compared with 04-05 are furnished in the following table.

Crop Production ( in Tonnes) % Change Yield rate (in kg/ha) % Change
05-06 04-05 05-06 04-05
1. Rice 5209433 5061622 2.9 2541 2703 -6.0
2. Jowar 231449 252063 -8.2 732 669 9.4
3. Bajra 94799 124300 -23.7 1157 1273 -9.1
4. Ragi 132172 154085 -14.2 1325 1416 -6.4
5. Maize 241217 294717 -18.2 1189 1552 -23.4
6. Bengalgram 4007 3942 1.6 678 614 10.4
7. Redgram 20400 28979 -29.6 540 667 -19.0
8. Greengram 45881 61760 -25.7 336 399 -15.8
9. Blackgram 70758 82998 -14.7 328 367 -10.6
10. Horsegram 22023 20110 9.5 365 298 22.5
11. Sugarcane (Cane) 35113269 24457244 43.6 $ 105 $ 110 -4.5
12. Chillies 31830 44631 -28.7 649 666 -2.6
13. Turmeric 143358 118447 21.0 5520 5480 0.7
14. Coriander 6424 8391 -23.4 305 434 -29.7
15. Tamarind 67524 67136 0.6 3198 3166 1.0
16. Onion 233796 256359 -8.8 8015 9677 -17.2
17. Tapioca 4857440 4563776 6.4 38211 41268 -7.4
18. Sweet Potato 29555 21118 40.0 20857 15117 38.0
19. Potato 74593 79060 -5.7 14904 15705 -5.1
20. Banana 4647635 3461788 34.3 49104 42477 15.6
21. Cotton (lint) * 168154 * 185960 -9.6 260 244 6.6
22. Castor 2777 2598 6.9 331 314 5.4
23. Groundnut 1097592 1005342 9.2 1775 1632 8.8
24. Gingelly 30772 33840 -9.1 469 465 0.9
25. Sunflower 21148 19303 9.6 1240 1063 16.7
26. Tobacco 7792 9274 -16.0 1527 1533 -0.4

* - in bales of 170 kg lint each

$ - in tonnes per ha.


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