Government of Tamil Nadu
Department of Economics and Statistics
Season and Crop Report 2005-06
6. AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY
Factors such as fertility of land, monsoon behaviour, rainfall, irrigation,, application of fertilizers, climatic conditions, marketing facilities, prices, availability of agricultural labourers etc. determine the area and productivity of any crop. The cropwise analysis of production between the current year and previous year is presented in the table below.
The production of foodgrains during the year under report is 6116145 tonnes as against 6146044 tonnes in 04-05 recording a decrease of 29899 tonnes or 0.5%. Rice is major constituent accounting for 85.2% of the total foodgrains production in the state.
Cropwise production of foodgrains is given in the following table.
CROPWISE PRODUCTION OF FOODGRAINS
The production of Cereals recorded an increase of 0.2% during 05-06 whereas the production of Pulses declined by 18.2% when compared to the previous year.
COMPONENTS OF FOODGRAINS 05-06
The Area and production of Foodgrains (Cereals + Pulses) over the last five years is shown in the following graph.
6.1.1 Paddy is the principal crop extensively cultivated in all the districts of the state having a unique three-season pattern viz Kar/Kuruvai /Sornavari (April to July), Samba/ Thaladi/Pishanam (August to November) and Navarai/ Kodai (December to March). Paddy accounted for 34.0% of the total cropped area in the state during 05-06. Villupuram district is at the top with an area of 168435 ha followed by Nagapattinam district with 158100 ha, Thiruvarur district 156098 ha and Thanjavur district 154901 ha. The Districtwise area under paddy and its percentage to total cropped area in the state together with the percentage distribution of paddy area of the state among the districts are given in the table below.
( in ha)
6.1.2 The normal area under Paddy is about 1800000 ha. However, owing to good rainfall, the area under paddy had increased to 1872822 ha during 04-05. Subsequent monsoon condiction and abundance of water thereof during 05-06, prevailed on the extent of area under paddy which has picked up to 2050455 ha registering an increase of 9.5% and correspondingly the production of rice has also increased to 5209433 tonnes from 5061622 tonnes in 04-05 showing an increase of 2.9%. The yield rate of Rice, on the contrary, has reduced to 2541 kg/ha in 05-06 from 2703 kg/ha in 04-05.
6.1.3 The seasonwise area, production and yield rate of paddy are furnished below:
6.2 Jowar (Cholam)
Jowar known as Cholam in Tamilnadu was grown in about 316274 ha constituting 5.2% of the total cropped area of the state. Jowar is sown in both under rain-fed as well as irrigated conditions. Coimbatore, Dindigul, Trichirapalli, Namakkal, Karur, Salem, Theni, Dharmapuri, Madurai and Vellore districts have contributed 85.2% of the total area under this crop in the state during 05-06.
6.3 Bajra (Cumbu)
Bajra known as Cumbu in Tamilnadu is generally sown under rain-fed conditions in the state. The area under the crop during 05-06 is 81925 ha constituting 1.3% of the total cropped area in the State. Bajra is generally grown in Thoothukudi, Villupuram,, Virudhunagar, Karur and Madurai districts that together accounted for 64.3% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.
The area under Ragi constitutes about 1.7% of the total cropped area in the state in 05-06. Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Salem, Erode and Vellore districts together accounted for 92.2% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.The Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts alone share 67.9%.
6.5 Other Millets
6.5.1 Maize, Korra, Varagu, Samai, Kudhiraivali and Panivaragu constitue “other millets” which are sparsely grown in the state.
These crops are mainly cultivated in rain-fed conditions and the area under these millets accounted for 243197 ha or 8.7 % of the total area under cereals during 05-06.
6.5.2 Maize is the major contributor accounting for 83.4% (202830 ha) of the total area under other millets. It is mainly grown in Perambalur, Dindigul, Coimbatore, Salem, Erode and Virudhunagar districts and they together share 77.1 % of the total area under this crop in the state.
6.5.3 Korra crop accounted for 0.6 % (1355 ha) of the total area under other millets. Major part of Korra is grown in the districts of Salem, Villupuram, Namakkal and Cuddalore.
6.5.4 Varagu crop is mainly sown under rain-fed conditions in the districts of, Cuddalore, Villupuram and Perambalur. The area under Varagu contributed 2.4% (5871 ha) of the total area under other millets.
6.5.5 Samai crop covers 11.3% (27577 ha) of the total area under other millets. Samai crop is generally sown in less fertile soil as a mixture crop with pulses through out the year regardless of the seasons. Dharmapuri district alone shares 47.8% of the Samai area in the state.
6.5.6. Apart from this, other millets such as Kudiraivali and Panivaragu are also grown in Tamil Nadu, mostly in Ramanathapuram, Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli and Salem districts. The Area and production of small millets are shown in the following table.
Of the 3316637 ha under Foodgrains, the area under Pulses was 525237 ha. which is 15.8% of the area under foodgrains. Pulses can grow both in rainfed and irrigated conditions. They comprise of Redgram, Greengram, Blackgram, Horsegram, Bengal gram, Cowpea, Mochai, Naripayaru etc.
Area and production of Pulses are shown in the following table
Blackgram is one of the important pulses grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. It accounts for 41.0% of the total area under pulses during the current year. This crop was extensively grown in Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur, Cuddalore, Toothukudi, Tirunelveli, and Villupuram districts and these districts together accounted for 77.7% of the total area under the crop during 05-06.The Area, production and yield rate of Blackgram is shown in the table below.
Greengram is one of the major pulses widely consumed next to Blackgram. It is grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. The crop was extensively cultivated in Thoothukudi, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, and Virudhunagar districts which together accounted for 60.7% of the total area under this crop in the state during 05-06.The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Greengram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.
Redgram is sown mainly under rain-fed condition. Vellore district stands first (12321 ha) in the cultivation of Redgram with 32.6% of the total area under this crop during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Redgram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.
Horsegram Crop is grown both in Kharif and Rabi Seasons. Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts are the main districts in the cultivation of horsegram with 53.3% of the total area under this crop during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Horsegram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.
Bengalgram is mainly sown in Rabi season. Coimbatore district stands first in the cultivation of Bengalgram with 76.2% of the area under the crop in the state during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of Bengalgram during 05-06 compared to 04-05.
Sugarcane is the most important commercial crop grown in the State. Out of 335397 ha of area under Sugarcane, 63.4% is planted and 37.6% is Ratoon.
Villupuram, Erode, Cuddalore, Thiruvannamalai, Vellore, Perambalur, Thanjavur, Dharmapuri, Namakkal and Salem districts together accounted for 74.3% of the total Sugarcane area of the state during 05-06. The area, production and yield rate of Sugarcane for the year 05-06 compared to 04-05 are shown in the table below:
Chillies is another important commercial crop grown in the State. This is mainly grown in Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi districts and sparsely grown in almost all other districts. These two districts together share 63.4% of the total area under this crop during 05-06. The following table shows the area, production and yield rate of chillies during 05-06 compared to 04-05.
Potato is a major vegetable widely consumed throughout Tamilnadu whereas it is grown only in the hilly areas of Dindigul, The Nilgiris, Krishnagiri and Erode districts. Dindigul and The Nilgiris districts together constitute about 94.8% of potato area in the state during 05-06.
Banana is the third trinity of Fruits and is also grown all over the State. Banana is the most widely consumed and is available in all seasons and in different varieties in the State. The Total area under Banana is 94648 ha. in the state during 05-06. Thoothukudi, Trichirapalli, Coimbatore, Erode, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Vellore and Thanjavur districts together accounted for 60.2% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.
Mango is one of the trinity of Fruits in Tamilnadu and is a seasonal one. It is generally grown under rain-fed conditions in the state. The area under the crop during 05-06 is 125104 ha in the State. Mango is generally grown all over the state and concentrated specifically in the districts of Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Vellore, Tiruvallur and Dharmapuri that together accounted for 63.9 % of the total area under this crop during 05-06.
Groundnut is the major crop under oilseeds accounting for 10.3% of the total cropped area in the state during 05-06. It is raised as both rain-fed as well as irrigated crop. Thiruvannamalai, Vellore, Villupuram, Namakkal, Erode and Salem districts constitute 54.9% of the area under groundnut in the state during 05-06.
The area, production and yield rate of Groundnut during 05-06 compared to 04-05 are furnished below:
Coconut is a perennial crop raised extensively in Coimbatore, Thanjavur, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Vellore, Erode, Tirunelveli, Theni, Krishnagiri, Salem and Madurai districts. The area under coconut in these districts accounted for 77.8% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.
Next to Groundnut and Coconut, Gingelly is the major oilseed crop in the state. Erode, Villupuram, Karur, Thanjavur, Thoothukudi, Virudhunagar, Cuddalore and Perambalur districts accounted for 67.8% of the total area under this crop during 05-06.
As a commercial crop different varieties of cotton are grown to the extent of 109742 ha in the state during the year under report. The major cotton growing districts are Salem, Virudhunagar, Madurai and Vellore together accounted for 42.1% of the total area under cotton during 05-06. The Area, Production and yield rate of cotton are furnished in the table below:
Cashewnut is the most important commercial crop in the State. It was grown in about 106059 ha in the state during 05-06. Cashewnut is sown mostly in sandy soil conditions. Perambalur, Cuddalore and Pudukottai districts have contributed 72.4% of the total area under this crop in the state during 05-06.
6.17 The Production and Productivity of some important crops for 05-06 compared with 04-05 are furnished in the following table.
* - in bales of 170 kg lint each
$ - in tonnes per ha.